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社會性與故事性消費

2012.05.07
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中文譯稿:金靖恩/英文原稿:迫俊亮

「為了支持日本東北的經濟,有許多原本不喝清酒的人現在也開始嘗試清酒,並逐漸感受到清酒的美好滋味。」Giichiro Yaegashi遞給我一杯溢滿香氣的龍泉八重櫻時,緩緩說道。-日本時代雜誌(The Japan Times)

距離日本東北發生的大地震已經一年了,當時有許多人擔憂著地震、海嘯、和福島核災將重創當地的經濟,然而,在過去一年日本東北的清酒銷售量卻微幅提升,有許多人為了支持當地經濟而去購買清酒。我自己也認識許多這樣的人(包括我父親在內),都是為了援助東北而購買清酒,而讓我難忘的是,我的父親似乎比以前更享受清酒的滋味了。這就是「社會性與故事性消費(social & story consumption)」其中一個明顯的實例。當產品與社會價值(social value)或有意義的故事連結在一起時,消費者往往能從中感受到更高的附加價值。就像我的父親得以更享受東北的清酒,除了清酒本身的滋味以外,也是因為他購買清酒的背後有著支持東北經濟的社會價值。

我們現在正經歷一個重要的消費轉變。為了解釋這種消費的轉變,我想介紹著名的馬斯洛「需求層級」理論。底下這個金字塔圖表顯示了人類需求的不同層級,這表示了人們傾向在滿足基本需求後,才往上追尋更高的需求層級。

這個理論可以完全解釋上文提到的消費轉變。讓我們假設你想要買一個手提包:

Case 1:生理基本需求
若只是為了滿足最基本的生活需求,你可能會直接在菜市場選擇一個最便宜、沒有特殊設計、但卻非常實用的包包。

Case 2:愛與歸屬感需求
為了滿足「愛與歸屬感」的需求,你可能會購買一個在你想歸屬的社群中非常受歡迎的包款。例如:若你想融入愛好戶外運動的社群團體,你可能會購買那些人會喜歡的Patagonia戶外休閒包款。(編按:Patagonia為著名的戶外運動服飾品牌)

Case 3:自尊需求
「自尊需求」是許多奢華品牌試圖實現的需求層級。你可能會為了展現自己經濟上的富裕程度而購買一個LV或GUCCI名牌包。

Case 4:自我實現需求
終於,你來到了馬斯洛需求金字塔中的最頂層—自我實現。這個層級就是前面提到那些為了支持東北經濟而購買清酒的消費者想滿足的需求。藉由購買商品來幫助日本東北的居民,便是一種自我實現的方式。

由於「自我實現」的需求層級位於金字塔的最頂端,追求此需求層級的人在各國都不多,且這類消費者的數量多寡端視當地消費文化的成熟度而定。在日本,如同東北清酒的例子所顯示,已經有愈來愈多的消費者開始嘗試追求自我實現,尋找那些能讓他們實踐自我價值的商品。而Motherhouse品牌也嘗試透過在產品中附加社會價值以及有意義的故事,來滿足消費者對於自我實踐的需求。

Motherhouse相信時尚消費可以成為改變社會、使社會更美好的一種工具,而時尚產品也能成為幫助開發中國家的一種媒介。由於Motherhouse的產品全部在孟加拉的自營工廠製造,並使用當地素材,消費者在購買這些商品的同時,也等於為孟加拉的勞動者提供了工作機會。此外,Motherhouse也致力於和消費者分享產品的生產環節,甚至定期邀請顧客到工廠參觀、直接與生產者溝通,讓他們不只認識商品,也能參與每個產品背後的設計者與生產者故事。

這種在產品中附加社會與故事性價值的作法受到日本市場的肯定和歡迎,而Motherhouse現在也正嘗試在台灣分享這樣的消費哲學。其實,這種消費型態的轉變已經在台灣發生了,這也是為什麼Motherhouse能在台北市最重要的百貨公司之一—忠孝SOGO開設分店。我相信將來會有愈來愈多的台灣消費者接受這種新的消費理念,因為這是人們心中的一種本能。

最後,我想引用一段文字來為本篇文章作結,而這段文字的作者-亞當.史密斯-經常被人們誤解為「冷血」的市場經濟信徒,事實上,他最有名的著作《國富論》,是這段引言出處的延伸讀物。(編按:《道德情操論》於1759年出版,《國富論》於1776年出版。)

同理心,並不完全是從熱情(passion)產生的,而是從當下的情境(situation)產生。有時候我們面對別人的難處時,會感受到強烈的無力感,那是因為我們正站在他的情境和立場設想,此時一股在這種設想中所產生的熱忱便會從我們心中油然而生,然而一旦抽離此情境、回到現實中,這股熱忱可能就不復在了。-《道德情操論》

因此,我們公司試著讓消費者了解產品的生產脈絡或情境,進而引發他們心中的共鳴感與同理心。透過推動故事性消費,我們希望可以透過更永續的方式,將人們的購買力與自我價值觀和同理心緊密地結合。


Social & Story Consumption

"Even people who were not sake drinkers before want to drink sake to support Tohoku, and they are gradually realizing how good the sake is," Giichiro Yaegashi tells me, as he hands me a fragrant cup of Ryusen Yaezakura Junmai Daiginjo to sample.” (The Japan Times)

It has passed one year since the catastrophic earthquake suffered Tohoku region in Japan. While many people had feared that the combined effects of the earthquake, tsunami and the nuclear turmoil in Fukushima would bring disastrous consequences to the industries in Tohoku region. However, the sales for the sake industry in Tohoku increased slightly in the past one year. Many people bought sake from Tohoku to support the producers. I personally know a lot of people, including my dad, who purchased Tohoku sake after the earthquake. The memorable thing about it for me is that when my dad drank the Tohoku sake, he seemed to enjoy it much more than usual. This is one clear example of “social & story consumption” I write about in this entry. Consumers can obtain more values when social value or meaningful story is attached to product. My dad could enjoy the Tohoku sake that much because he enjoyed the social value to support Tohoku, in addition to the taste.

We are now experiencing a significant consumption shift. To explain this consumption shift, I would like to introduce a famous chart below called “the Hierarchy of Needs” made by Abraham Maslow. This pyramid chart shows the level of human needs, suggesting that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to higher needs.

This theory can be perfectly applied to explain the consumption shift. Let’s assume that you want to buy a hand-bag.

Case 1: To fulfill Physiological and Safety need
You would acquire the cheapest bag which has no design but very practical in order to fulfill your minimum need to survive. You would purchase this kind of handbag at a local market.

Case 2: Love / belonging need
To fulfill this need, you would purchase a hand-bag which is popular in a community that you want to belong to. For example, if you want to be a part of outdoor lover community, you would buy a bag of Patagonia.

Case 3: Esteem need
This is the need which luxury brands try to fulfill. You would buy a bag of LOUISVUITTON or GUCCI to show your economic affluence.

Case 4: Self-actualization need
Finally, you reach the need which locates at the top of the pyramid, self-actualization. This is the need what those who bought Tohoku sake try to fulfill. Helping Tohoku people through buying their products can be a way of self-actualization. 

Since the need for self-actualization locates at the top of pyramid, those who acquire this need are not many in most countries. The size and percentage of this segment depends on the maturity of its consumption culture. In Japan, as the example of Tohoku sake shows, more and more people start acquiring the need of self-actualization. Many consumers are now looking for a product which can provide them a way to achieve their self-actualization need. And Motherhouse tries to fulfill the need through attaching social value and story to its products.

Motherhouse believes that fashion consumption can be a way to change the society for the better, considering its products as a mean to do good for developing countries. Motherhouse produces all the products at its own factory in Bangladesh and uses local materials, so buying its products results in providing employments to local workers in Bangladesh. Also, Motherhouse shares all the processes of production with its customers, so customers can enjoy not only enjoy a product itself but also stories of producers and designer behind the product. Motherhouse even regularly invites customers to its factory to directly communicate with producers.

This approach to provide social value and story attached to product works well in Japan market so far, and Motherhouse is now challenging to do the same in Taiwan market. This spend shift already began in Taiwan. This is why Motherhouse can open its own shop at Zhongxiao SOGO, one of the top department stores in Taipei. I am very confident that Taiwanese consumers would accept this new consumption style because this is an instinctive need of human beings.

I conclude this entry with a quote from a person who is usually misunderstood as a cold-blood market fundamentalist. Actually, his most famous book, the Wealth of Nations, is merely a side reader of the book I quote below.
 
“Sympathy... does not arise so much from the view of the passion, as from that of the situation.... We sometimes feel for another, a passion of which he himself seems to be altogether incapable; because, when we put ourselves in his case, that passion arises in our breast from the imagination, though it does not in his from the reality.” — Adam Smith, The Theory of Moral Sentiments

So our company tries to induce people's sympathy by having them understand the background situation / context where our products are made. Through advancing story consumption, we hope to align people's purchasing power with their own personal values, including sympathy, in a more sustainable way.

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